Journal article Open Access

Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Product

Luca Piemontese; Filippo Maria Perna; Antonio Logrieco; Vito Capriati; Michele Solfrizzo

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  "DOI": "10.3390/molecules22010121", 
  "container_title": "molecules", 
  "title": "Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Product", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "<p>An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of<br>\nOchratoxin A (OTA) (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and<br>\nlargely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products) has, for the first time, been set up and<br>\nvalidated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol<br>\n(1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction<br>\nsolvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those<br>\nobtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs) typical of the standard<br>\nand official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to<br>\n89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results<br>\n(RSDr) of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column<br>\nwas excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum<br>\nwheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current<br>\nEuropean Commission (EC) regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were<br>\nachieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat) and 88% (bread crumbs) and an RSDr<br>\nbetween 2% (biscuits) and 7% (bread).</p>", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Luca Piemontese"
      "family": "Filippo Maria Perna"
      "family": "Antonio Logrieco"
      "family": "Vito Capriati"
      "family": "Michele Solfrizzo"
  "note": "This work was financially supported by the CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production and\nUniversity of Bari within the framework of the following Projects: Mycokey\u2014Horizon 2020 (Grant Agreement:\n678781). L.P. would like to acknowledge Fondo di Sviluppo e Coesione 2007\u20132013, APQ Ricerca Regione\nPuglia \"Programma regionale a sostegno della specializzazione intelligente e della sostenibilit\u00e0 sociale ed\nambientale\u2014FutureInResearch\"\u2014Project ID:I2PCTF6. F.M.P. and V.C. thank the Interuniversities Consortium\nC.I.N.M.P.I.S. for partially supporting this research project.", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "252327"
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