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Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Product

Luca Piemontese; Filippo Maria Perna; Antonio Logrieco; Vito Capriati; Michele Solfrizzo

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  <identifier identifierType="URL">https://zenodo.org/record/252327</identifier>
      <creatorName>Luca Piemontese</creatorName>
      <creatorName>Filippo Maria Perna</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Dipartimento di Farmacia–Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro"</affiliation>
      <creatorName>Antonio Logrieco</creatorName>
      <creatorName>Vito Capriati</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Dipartimento di Farmacia–Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro"</affiliation>
      <creatorName>Michele Solfrizzo</creatorName>
    <title>Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Product</title>
    <subject>deep eutectic solvents; Ochratoxin A; food chemistry; analytical method; green solvents</subject>
    <date dateType="Issued">2017-01-19</date>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="JournalArticle"/>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url">https://zenodo.org/record/252327</alternateIdentifier>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsIdenticalTo">10.3390/molecules22010121</relatedIdentifier>
    <rights rightsURI="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of&lt;br&gt;
Ochratoxin A (OTA) (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and&lt;br&gt;
largely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products) has, for the first time, been set up and&lt;br&gt;
validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol&lt;br&gt;
(1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction&lt;br&gt;
solvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those&lt;br&gt;
obtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs) typical of the standard&lt;br&gt;
and official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to&lt;br&gt;
89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results&lt;br&gt;
(RSDr) of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column&lt;br&gt;
was excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum&lt;br&gt;
wheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current&lt;br&gt;
European Commission (EC) regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were&lt;br&gt;
achieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat) and 88% (bread crumbs) and an RSDr&lt;br&gt;
between 2% (biscuits) and 7% (bread).&lt;/p&gt;</description>
    <description descriptionType="Other">This work was financially supported by the CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production and
University of Bari within the framework of the following Projects: Mycokey—Horizon 2020 (Grant Agreement:
678781). L.P. would like to acknowledge Fondo di Sviluppo e Coesione 2007–2013, APQ Ricerca Regione
Puglia "Programma regionale a sostegno della specializzazione intelligente e della sostenibilità sociale ed
ambientale—FutureInResearch"—Project ID:I2PCTF6. F.M.P. and V.C. thank the Interuniversities Consortium
C.I.N.M.P.I.S. for partially supporting this research project.</description>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/100010661</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/678781/">678781</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain</awardTitle>
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