Journal article Open Access

Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Product

Luca Piemontese; Filippo Maria Perna; Antonio Logrieco; Vito Capriati; Michele Solfrizzo


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    <subfield code="a">deep eutectic solvents; Ochratoxin A; food chemistry; analytical method; green solvents</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">This work was financially supported by the CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production and
University of Bari within the framework of the following Projects: Mycokey—Horizon 2020 (Grant Agreement:
678781). L.P. would like to acknowledge Fondo di Sviluppo e Coesione 2007–2013, APQ Ricerca Regione
Puglia "Programma regionale a sostegno della specializzazione intelligente e della sostenibilità sociale ed
ambientale—FutureInResearch"—Project ID:I2PCTF6. F.M.P. and V.C. thank the Interuniversities Consortium
C.I.N.M.P.I.S. for partially supporting this research project.</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Dipartimento di Farmacia–Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro"</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Dipartimento di Farmacia–Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro"</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Vito Capriati</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Product</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of&lt;br&gt;
Ochratoxin A (OTA) (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and&lt;br&gt;
largely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products) has, for the first time, been set up and&lt;br&gt;
validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol&lt;br&gt;
(1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction&lt;br&gt;
solvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those&lt;br&gt;
obtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs) typical of the standard&lt;br&gt;
and official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to&lt;br&gt;
89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results&lt;br&gt;
(RSDr) of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column&lt;br&gt;
was excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum&lt;br&gt;
wheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current&lt;br&gt;
European Commission (EC) regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were&lt;br&gt;
achieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat) and 88% (bread crumbs) and an RSDr&lt;br&gt;
between 2% (biscuits) and 7% (bread).&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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