Journal article Open Access

Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction

Vania C. Liuzzi; Valentina Mirabelli; Maria Teresa Cimmarusti; Miriam Haidukowski; John F. Leslie; Antonio F. Logrieco; Rocco Caliandro; Francesca Fanelli; Giuseppina Mulè


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    <subfield code="a">enniatin; beauvericin; ESYN1; mycotoxins; Fusarium; homology modelling; multivariate analysis; backbone angles</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Crystallography, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Valentina Mirabelli</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy, Department of Economics, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Maria Teresa Cimmarusti</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506 KS, USA</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Antonio F. Logrieco</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Crystallography, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Rocco Caliandro</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Francesca Fanelli</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Vania C. Liuzzi</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Members of the fungal genus &lt;em&gt;Fusarium&lt;/em&gt; can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent &lt;em&gt;N&lt;/em&gt;-methyltransferase activities. Several &lt;em&gt;Fusarium&lt;/em&gt; species can produce ENNs, BEA or both, but the mechanism(s) enabling these differential metabolic profiles is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing &lt;em&gt;esyn1&lt;/em&gt; transcripts from different &lt;em&gt;Fusarium&lt;/em&gt; species. We measured ENNs and BEA production by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and Acquity QDa mass detector (UPLC-PDA-QDa) analyses. We predicted protein structures, compared the predictions by multivariate analysis methods and found a striking correlation between BEA/ENN-producing profiles and ESYN1 three-dimensional structures. Structural differences in the β strand’s Asn789-Ala793 and His797-Asp802 portions of the amino acid adenylation domain can be used to distinguish BEA/ENN-producing &lt;em&gt;Fusarium&lt;/em&gt; isolates from those that produce only ENN.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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