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Degradation Mechanisms of C6/LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 Li-ion Batteries Unraveled by Non-destructive and Post-mortem Methods

Li, Dongjiang; Li, Hu; Danilov, Dmitri; Gao, Lu; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Zhongru; Zhou, Jiang; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Yang, Yong; Notten, Peter H. L.


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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;The ageing mechanisms of C6/LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 batteries at various discharging currents and temperatures&lt;br&gt; have systematically been investigated with electrochemical and post-mortem analyses. The irreversible capacity&lt;br&gt; losses (&amp;Delta;Qir) at various ageing conditions are calculated on the basis of regularly determined electromotive force&lt;br&gt; (EMF) curves. Two stages can be distinguished for the degradation of the storage capacity at 30 &amp;deg;C. The first stage&lt;br&gt; includes SEI formation, cathode dissolution, etc. The second stage is related to battery polarization. The various&lt;br&gt; degradation mechanisms of the individual electrodes have been distinguished by dVEMF/dQ vs Qout and dVEMF/dQ&lt;br&gt; vs V plots. The Solid-Electrolyte-Interface (SEI) formation as well as the electrode degradation has been experimentally&lt;br&gt; confirmed by XPS analyses. Both Ni and Mn elements are detected at the anode while Co is absent,&lt;br&gt; indicating that the bonding of Co atoms is more robust in the cathode host structure. A Cathode-Electrolyte-&lt;br&gt; Interface (CEI) layer is also detected at the cathode surface. The composition of the CEI layer includes Li salts,&lt;br&gt; such as LiF, LiCOOR, as well as transition metal compounds like NiF2. Cathode dissolution is considered to be&lt;br&gt; responsible for both the NiF2 detected at the cathode and Ni at the anode.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
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