Journal article Open Access

Degradation Mechanisms of C6/LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 Li-ion Batteries Unraveled by Non-destructive and Post-mortem Methods

Li, Dongjiang; Li, Hu; Danilov, Dmitri; Gao, Lu; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Zhongru; Zhou, Jiang; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Yang, Yong; Notten, Peter H. L.


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    "description": "<p>The ageing mechanisms of C6/LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 batteries at various discharging currents and temperatures<br>\nhave systematically been investigated with electrochemical and post-mortem analyses. The irreversible capacity<br>\nlosses (&Delta;Qir) at various ageing conditions are calculated on the basis of regularly determined electromotive force<br>\n(EMF) curves. Two stages can be distinguished for the degradation of the storage capacity at 30 &deg;C. The first stage<br>\nincludes SEI formation, cathode dissolution, etc. The second stage is related to battery polarization. The various<br>\ndegradation mechanisms of the individual electrodes have been distinguished by dVEMF/dQ vs Qout and dVEMF/dQ<br>\nvs V plots. The Solid-Electrolyte-Interface (SEI) formation as well as the electrode degradation has been experimentally<br>\nconfirmed by XPS analyses. Both Ni and Mn elements are detected at the anode while Co is absent,<br>\nindicating that the bonding of Co atoms is more robust in the cathode host structure. A Cathode-Electrolyte-<br>\nInterface (CEI) layer is also detected at the cathode surface. The composition of the CEI layer includes Li salts,<br>\nsuch as LiF, LiCOOR, as well as transition metal compounds like NiF2. Cathode dissolution is considered to be<br>\nresponsible for both the NiF2 detected at the cathode and Ni at the anode.</p>", 
    "license": {
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    "title": "Degradation Mechanisms of C6/LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 Li-ion Batteries Unraveled by Non-destructive and Post-mortem Methods", 
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    "keywords": [
      "Li-ion battery; Solid-electrolyte-interphase; Irreversible capacity loss; Electromotive force; Electrode degradation;"
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    "publication_date": "2019-02-15", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Li, Dongjiang"
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        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Li, Hu"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Danilov, Dmitri"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Gao, Lu"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Chen, Xiaoxuan"
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        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Zhang, Zhongru"
      }, 
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        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Zhou, Jiang"
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        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Eichel, R\u00fcdiger-A."
      }, 
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        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Yang, Yong"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Forschungszentrum J\u00fclich, Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), D-52425 J\u00fclich, Germany", 
        "name": "Notten, Peter H. L."
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