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Improved key process in representing Arctic warming (D3.5)

Davy, Richard; Gao, Yongqi


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    <dct:title>Improved key process in representing Arctic warming (D3.5)</dct:title>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Summary:&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;This Blue-Action task was focused on improving the representation of some of the most important&lt;br&gt; physical processes which contribute to Arctic warming within the climate models used by the&lt;br&gt; consortium. The two processes we addressed were the effect on the atmospheric state of the fracturing&lt;br&gt; of the sea ice cover and turbulence under strongly stable thermal stratification. The creation and&lt;br&gt; development of&lt;br&gt; &lt;strong&gt;The work done:&lt;/strong&gt; We first analysed the results of previously performed large eddy simulations which&lt;br&gt; resolved the turbulence over leads to determine the effect leads have on sensible heat flux from open&lt;br&gt; water. Because of the effect of three-dimensional structures in the turbulent mixing above leads, the&lt;br&gt; heat flux coming from leads can be amplified compared to the fluxes one would get from open water&lt;br&gt; under the same air-sea temperature difference. The amplification effect strongly depends on the width&lt;br&gt; of the lead, with the largest effect occurring for leads of widths around 1.4 km. We assessed the&lt;br&gt; functional sensitivity of this amplification effect to key parameters used in the turbulence-resolving&lt;br&gt; model, including the length scale for the convective boundary layer, which reflects the background&lt;br&gt; stability in the atmosphere.&lt;br&gt; We combined this relation between the amplification effect of heat fluxes as a function of lead width&lt;br&gt; with observed distributions of lead widths. These were taken from the peer-reviewed literature where&lt;br&gt; &lt;strong&gt;The key findings: &lt;/strong&gt;The presence of leads in sea ice dramatically alters the surface energy balance in the&lt;br&gt; Arctic. There is a large seasonal cycle to the effect of the presence of leads, because the flux from the&lt;br&gt; leads depends strongly on the background stability in the atmosphere. In the winter when the&lt;br&gt; atmosphere is often strongly stably stratified, the leads strongly amplify the surface sensible heat flux&lt;br&gt; coming from open water. In the summer there is the opposite effect and the generally weaker&lt;br&gt; atmospheric stability reduces the flux coming from leads.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
    <dct:description>The Blue-Action project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No 727852.</dct:description>
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    <dct:title>Arctic Impact on Weather and Climate</dct:title>
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