Conference paper Open Access

System Architecture Optimization: An Open Source Multidisciplinary Aircraft Jet Engine Architecting Problem

Bussemaker, J.H.; De Smedt, T.; La Rocca., G.; Ciampa, P.D.; Nagel, B.


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    "description": "<p>Decisions regarding the system architecture are important and taken early in the design<br>\nprocess, however suffer from large design spaces and expert bias. Systematic design space<br>\nexploration techniques, like optimization, can be applied to system architecting. Realistic engineering benchmark problems are needed to enable development of optimization algorithms<br>\nthat can successfully solve these black-box, hierarchical, mixed-discrete, multi-objective architecture optimization problems. Such benchmark problems support the development of more<br>\ncapable optimization algorithms, more suitable methods for modeling system architecture design space, and educating engineers and other stakeholders on system architecture optimization<br>\nin general. In this paper, an engine architecting benchmark problem is presented that exhibits<br>\nall this behavior and is based on the open-source simulation tools pyCycle and OpenMDAO.<br>\nNext to thermodynamic cycle analysis, the proposed benchmark problem includes modules<br>\nfor the estimation of engine weight, length, diameter, noise and NOx emissions. The problem<br>\nis defined using modular interfaces, allowing to tune the complexity of the problem, by vary-<br>\ning the number of design variables, objectives and constraints. The benchmark problem is<br>\nvalidated by comparing to pyCycle example cases and existing engine performance data, and<br>\ndemonstrated using both a simple and a realistic problem formulation, solved using the multi-<br>\nobjective NSGA-II algorithm. It is shown that realistic results can be obtained, even though<br>\nthe design space is subject to hidden constraints due to the engine evaluation not converging<br>\nfor all design points.<br>\n&nbsp;</p>", 
    "license": {
      "id": "CC-BY-4.0"
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    "title": "System Architecture Optimization: An Open Source Multidisciplinary Aircraft Jet Engine Architecting Problem", 
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        "title": "AGILE 4.0: Towards cyber-physical collaborative aircraft development", 
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        "program": "Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - Research and Innovation action", 
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    "keywords": [
      "Model Based System Engineering", 
      "Multidisciplinary Design Optimization", 
      "Aircraft Jet Engine"
    ], 
    "publication_date": "2021-07-28", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "DLR (German Aerospace Center), Institute of System Architectures in Aeronautics, Hamburg, Germany", 
        "name": "Bussemaker, J.H."
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands", 
        "name": "De Smedt, T."
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands", 
        "name": "La Rocca., G."
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "DLR (German Aerospace Center), Institute of System Architectures in Aeronautics, Hamburg, Germany", 
        "name": "Ciampa, P.D."
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "DLR (German Aerospace Center), Institute of System Architectures in Aeronautics, Hamburg, Germany", 
        "name": "Nagel, B."
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